Construct and run Android Automotive OS on Raspberry Pi 4B – Grape Up


Have you ever ever wished to construct your individual Android? It’s simple in response to the official guide, nevertheless it’s getting more durable on a Home windows (or Mac) machine, or if you happen to’d wish to run it on bodily {hardware}. Nonetheless too simple? Let’s construct Android Automotive OS – the identical supply code, however one other layer of complexity. On this guide, we’ll cowl all steps wanted to construct and run Android Automotive OS 11 AOSP on Raspberry Pi 4B utilizing Home windows. The answer is just not good, nonetheless. Essentially the most principal situation is an absence of Google Companies as a result of your entire AAOS is on an open-source challenge and Google doesn’t present its providers this fashion. Nonetheless, let’s construct the open-source model first, after which we will attempt to face incoming points.



If you wish to run the system on a bodily gadget, you want one. I exploit the Raspberry Pi 4 mannequin B with 8GB of RAM ( By the best way, if you wish to construct and run an emulator from the supply, it’s additionally attainable, however there’s a small limitation – packaging the emulator to a zipper file, shifting it to a different laptop, and even operating it underneath Android Studio was launched in Android 12.

To energy your Raspberry, you want an influence adapter (USB C, min. 5V 3A). I exploit the Raspberry-official 5.1V 3A mannequin. You may also energy the Raspberry laptop out of your desktop/laptop computer’s USB port, particularly if you happen to’re going to debug it by way of a serial connection. Verify the “If it doesn’t work” part beneath for the required {hardware}.

One other piece of {hardware} wanted is an SD card. In idea, 4GB is all you want, nonetheless, I like to recommend shopping for a bigger card to have some additional house on your purposes on Android. I exploit 32GB and 64GB playing cards. You’ll additionally want a built-in or exterior card reader. I exploit the latter. 

The following step is a display screen. It’s optionally available however fancy. You may join your mouse and optionally keyboard to your Raspberry Pi by way of USB and join any show you have got by way of micro-HDMI however utilizing a contact display screen is way more intuitive. I exploit a Waveshare 10-inch display screen devoted to Raspberry ( The display screen field has a spot to screw the Raspberry too, so that you don’t want any additional case. You may also purchase it with an influence adapter and a show cable.

In the event you don’t purchase a bundle, be sure you have all mandatory equipment: micro-HDMI – HDMI cable to attach a display screen (Waveshare or every other), USB A – USB mini A cable to attach a contact sensor of the display screen, USB mini A 5V 3A adapter to energy the display screen.

After all, you want a pc. On this guide, we use a Home windows machine with at the least 512GB of storage (the Android supply is large) and 16GB of RAM.

Software program

You may in all probability construct every thing in pure Home windows, however the beneficial technique is to make use of WSL. I assume you have already got it put in, so simply be sure you have the latest WSL2 model. When you have by no means used WSL earlier than, see the complete guide right here

WSL changes

The usual WSL set up makes use of a too-small digital drive and restricted RAM, so it’s essential modify it. 

Let’s begin with the disk. Be certain the WSL is shut down by operating ‘wsl –shutdown’ within the command immediate. Open Home windows Command Immediate with admin privileges and enter ‘diskpart’. Then run ‘choose vdisk file=”<path to WSL drive file>”’. For me, the trail is “C:Customers<person>AppDataLocalPackagesCanonicalGroupLimited.Ubuntu_<WSL_instance_id>LocalStateext4.vhdx”. Now you may develop it with the command ‘develop vdisk most=512000’. Round 300GB is sufficient for Android 11, however if you wish to play with a number of branches of Android on the identical time, you want extra space. Now you may shut the diskpart with the ‘exit’ command. Subsequent, open the WSL and run ‘sudo resize2fs /dev/sdb 512000M’. I assume you have got solely a single drive hooked up to the WSL and it’s seen within the Linux subsystem as /dev/sdb. You may examine it with the instructions ‘sudo mount -t devtmpfs none /dev || mount | grep ext4’. 

Now, let’s modify the reminiscence. Cease the WSL once more. Open your private home listing in Home windows and open .wslconfig file. Create it if this file doesn’t exist but. Within the file, it’s essential create a [wsl2] part and reminiscence configuration. The whole file ought to seem like this: 

As you may see, I’ve hooked up 16GB to the digital machine. It’s assigned dynamically, in response to wants, however you have to be conscious that the digital machine can take all of it, so if you happen to permit it to eat your complete RAM, it could actually drive your Home windows to make use of a tough disk to outlive (which is able to sluggish every thing down considerably).


Constructing Android on 8 cores, 16GB RAM machine takes round 4 hours. If you wish to do it sooner otherwise you don’t have a pc highly effective sufficient at your private home or workplace, you may contemplate constructing within the cloud. Easy AWS EC2 with 32 cores and 64GB of reminiscence does the job in a single hour (to obtain and construct) and prices just some bucks.

Let’s Get Able to Rumble!!!

..or at the least to constructing.

Extra conditions

We’d like some software program however not a lot. Simply set up the next packages. This set of libraries permits you to construct Android Automotive OS variations 11 to 13.

sudo apt replace && sudo apt set up gcc-aarch64-linux-gnu libssl-dev bc python3-setuptools repo python-is-python3 libncurses5 zip unzip make gcc flex bison -y

Supply code downloading

Let’s create a house listing for our android and obtain sources.

mkdir android-11.0.0_r48 && cd android-11.0.0_r48
repo init -u -b android-11.0.0_r48 --partial-clone --clone-filter=blob:restrict=10M
git clone .repo/local_manifests -b arpi-11
repo sync

“repo init” will ask you for some private knowledge. It’s collected by Google. To study extra about optimizations right here, examine this guide: ‘git clone’ provides a customized code from Android RPI challenge ( with drivers on your Raspberry Pi. The challenge is nice and it’s all you want if you wish to run Android TV. To run Android Automotive OS, we’ll want to regulate it barely (see “Changes” part beneath). ‘repo sync’ will take a while as a result of it’s essential obtain round 200GB of code. When you have a robust machine with an awesome Web connection, you should utilize extra threads with ‘-j X’ parameter added to the command. The default thread depend is 4. When you have already synchronized your supply code with out android-rpi native manifest, it’s essential add –force-sync to the ’repo-sync’ command.


All modifications from this part can obtain as a patch file hooked up to this text. See the “Path file” part beneath.

Android-rpi supplies Android TV for Raspberry Pi. We have to take away the TV-related configuration and add the Automotive OS one.

Let’s begin with eradicating pointless information. You may safely take away the next information and directories:

  • gadget/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/anim
  • gadget/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values-television
  • gadget/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/dimens.xml
  • gadget/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/kinds.xml
  • gadget/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/packages

To take away the person discover display screen not wanted in Automotive OS, create a brand new file gadget/arpi/rpi4/overlay/packages/providers/Automotive/service/res/values/config.xml with the next content material:

<?xml model="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<sources xmlns:xliff="urn:oasis:names:tc:xliff:doc:1.2"> 
  <string title="config_userNoticeUiService" translatable="false"></string>

To switch the fundamental TV overlay config with the Automotive overlay config, modify the configuration in gadget/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/config.xml.

Take away:

  • <integer title=”config_defaultUiModeType”>4</integer> <!–disable compelled UI_MODE_TYPE_TELEVISION, as there may be solely MODE_TYPE_CAR out there now–>
  • <integer title=”config_longPressOnHomeBehavior”>0</integer> <!–disable residence button lengthy press motion–>
  • <bool title=”config_hasPermanentDpad”>true</bool> <!–disable D-pad–>
  • <string title=”config_appsAuthorizedForSharedAccounts”>;;</string> <!–take away pointless entry for a shared account as there may be nothing in* now–>

… and add:

  • <bool title=”config_showNavigationBar”>true</bool> <!–allow software program navigation bar, as there is no such thing as a hardwave one–>
  • <bool title=”config_enableMultiUserUI”>true</bool> <!–allow multi-user, as AAOS makes use of background processes known as in one other classes –>
  • <integer title=”config_multiuserMaximumUsers”>8</integer> <!–set most person depend, required by the earlier one–>

Additionally in gadget/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/packages/SystemUI/res/values/config.xml, take away <string title=”config_statusBarComponent” translatable=”false”></string>.

Now let’s rename the android-rpi unique /gadget/arpi/rpi4/ to /gadget/arpi/rpi4/ We have to modify the file a little bit bit.

Take away the next variables definitions. A few of them you’ll re-create in one other file, whereas a few of them aren’t wanted.


Take away the next invocations. We’re going to name mandatory exterior information in one other mk file.

  • $(name inherit-product, gadget/google/atv/merchandise/
  • $(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
  • $(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
  • embody frameworks/native/construct/

In PRODUCT_PROPERTY_OVERRIDES take away×720 and add the next properties. This fashion you take away the TV launcher configuration and override the default automotive launcher configuration.

  • dalvik.vm.dex2oat64.enabled=true
  • keyguard.no_require_sim=true
  • ro.logd.dimension=1m

Now it’s essential utterly take away the android-rpi TV launcher and add RenderScript help for Automotive OS. In PRODUCT_PACKAGES take away:

… and add:

Create a brand new rpi4.mk4 with the next content material:

PRODUCT_PACKAGE_OVERLAYS += gadget/generic/automotive/widespread/overlay
$(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
$(name inherit-product, gadget/arpi/rpi4/
$(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
$(name inherit-product, gadget/generic/automotive/widespread/
DEVICE_PACKAGE_OVERLAYS += gadget/arpi/rpi4/overlay gadget/generic/automotive/car_x86_64/overlay

PRODUCT_MODEL := Raspberry Pi 4

Because of the license, keep in mind so as to add your self to the PRODUCT_MANUFACTURER area.

Now you have got two mk information – is borrowed from android-rpi challenge and adjusted, and incorporates all modifications for Automotive OS. You may meld these two collectively or break up them into extra information if you happen to’d like, however remember the fact that the order of invocations does matter (not all the time, however nonetheless). 

As Android Automotive OS is larger than Android TV, we have to enhance the system partition dimension to suit the brand new picture. In gadget/arpi/rpi4/ enhance BOARD_SYSTEMIMAGE_PARTITION_SIZE to 2147483648, which implies 2GB.

You want to apply all modifications described in too. These modifications are additionally included within the patch file hooked up.

In the event you use the 8GB model of Raspberry Pi, it’s essential substitute gadget/arpi/rpi4/boot/fixup4.dat and gadget/arpi/rpi4/boot/start4.elf information. You could find the right information within the patch file hooked up or you might use the official supply: It’s in all probability not wanted for 4GB model of Raspberry, however I don’t have such a tool for verification. 

Path file 

In the event you want to use all modifications described above as a single file, go to your sources listing and run ‘git apply –no-index <path_to_patch_file>’. There may be additionally a boot animation changed within the patch file. If you wish to create one in every of your individual, comply with the official guide right here:

Now we will construct!

That’s the straightforward half. Simply run a couple of instructions from beneath. Firstly, we have to construct a customized kernel for Android. ‘’ script simply configures all variables required. The primary ‘make’ command builds the actual kernel picture (which might take a couple of minutes). Subsequent, construct a tool tree configuration. 

cd kernel/arpi
ARCH=arm64 scripts/kconfig/ arch/arm64/configs/bcm2711_defconfig kernel/configs/android-base.config kernel/configs/android-recommended.config
ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- make Picture.gz
ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- DTC_FLAGS="[email protected]" make broadcom/bcm2711-rpi-4-b.dtb
ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- DTC_FLAGS="[email protected]" make overlays/vc4-kms-v3d-pi4.dtbo
cd ../..

The following half is to construct your entire system. “” script units up variables and provides customized instructions to your terminal. Then you may decide the right pair of Android variations and gadgets with “lunch”. You may run it with out parameters to see (virtually) all attainable configurations. On this step, you may resolve to construct a system for devoted {hardware} (eg. Dragonboard) and swap between telephone/pill/TV/wearable/automotive variations of Android. The final line is an actual constructing. We are able to’t run simply “make” or “m”, as documented within the official guide as a result of we have to create three particular photos to write down them on an SD card and run them on Raspberry Pi. Exchange “X” in ‘-j X’ with the variety of threads you need to use. The default worth is the variety of logical processors in your laptop. 

supply construct/
lunch rpi4-eng
make -j X ramdisk systemimage vendorimage

I hope you have got a pleasant guide subsequent to you as a result of the final constructing takes a couple of hours relying in your {hardware}. Excellent news!  If it’s essential adapt one thing and construct once more, typically you simply want the three final strains (and even simply the final one) – to supply the setting setup, to choose the lunch configuration, and to make ramdisk, system, and vendor photos. And it takes hours for the primary time solely. 

Creating an SD card 

This step appears to be simple, nevertheless it isn’t. WSL doesn’t include drivers for the USB card reader. You need to use usbip to ahead a tool from Home windows to the subsystem, nevertheless it doesn’t work nicely with exterior storage with out partitions. The answer is a VirtualBox with Ubuntu put in. Simply create a digital machine, set up Ubuntu, and set up Visitor Additions. Then you may join the cardboard reader and cross it to the digital machine. In the event you’re a minimalist, you should utilize Ubuntu Server or every other Linux distribution you want. Bear in mind that utilizing a card reader constructed into your laptop could also be difficult relying on drivers and the {hardware} connection sort (USB-like, or PCI-e). 

Now, it’s essential create a partition schema on the SD card. I assume the cardboard is loaded to the system as /dev/sdb. Verify your configuration earlier than persevering with to keep away from formatting your primary drive or one other catastrophe. Let’s erase the present partition desk and create a brand new one. 

sudo umount /dev/sdb*
sudo wipefs -a /dev/sdb
sudo fdisk /dev/sdb

Now let’s create partitions. First, you want a 128MB energetic partition of the W95 FAT32 (LBA) sort, second a 2GB Linux partition, third a 128MB Linux partition, and the remainder of the cardboard for person knowledge (additionally Linux partition). Right here’s navigate by way of fdisk menu to configure all partitions.

Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.37.2).
Modifications will stay in reminiscence solely, till you resolve to write down them.
Watch out earlier than utilizing the write command.
Gadget doesn't include a acknowledged partition desk.
Created a brand new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x179fb9bc.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition sort
   p   major (0 major, 0 prolonged, 4 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default p): 
Utilizing default response p.
Partition quantity (1-4, default 1): 
First sector (2048-61022207, default 2048): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-sizeK,M,G,T,P (2048-61022207, default 61022207): +128M
Created a brand new partition 1 of sort 'Linux' and of dimension 128 MiB.
Command (m for assist): a
Chosen partition 1
The bootable flag on partition 1 is enabled now.
Command (m for assist): t
Chosen partition 1
Hex code or alias (sort L to record all): 0c
Modified sort of partition 'Linux' to 'W95 FAT32 (LBA)'.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition sort
   p   major (1 major, 0 prolonged, 3 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default p): 
Utilizing default response p.
Partition quantity (2-4, default 2): 
First sector (264192-61022207, default 264192): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-sizeK,M,G,T,P (264192-61022207, default 61022207): +2G
Created a brand new partition 2 of sort 'Linux' and of dimension 2 GiB.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition sort
   p   major (2 major, 0 prolonged, 2 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default p): 
Utilizing default response p.
Partition quantity (3,4, default 3): 
First sector (4458496-61022207, default 4458496): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-sizeK,M,G,T,P (4458496-61022207, default 61022207): +128M
Created a brand new partition 3 of sort 'Linux' and of dimension 128 MiB.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition sort
   p   major (3 major, 0 prolonged, 1 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default e): p
Chosen partition 4
First sector (4720640-61022207, default 4720640): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-sizeK,M,G,T,P (4720640-61022207, default 61022207):
Created a brand new partition 4 of sort 'Linux' and of dimension 26,8 GiB.
Command (m for assist): w
The partition desk has been altered.
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition desk.
Syncing disks.

Watch out with the final partition – fdisk proposes creating an prolonged one by default, which isn’t wanted in our use case.

In the event you don’t do it for the primary time on the identical card, you may even see a warning that some partition already incorporates a file system signature. You may safely comply with take away it. 

Partition #4 incorporates a ext4 signature.
Do you need to take away the signature? [Y]es/[N]o: Y
The signature will probably be eliminated by a write command.

Now, let’s provide file programs for the primary and the final partitions. 

sudo mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sdb1
sudo mkfs.ext4 -L userdata /dev/sdb4

We received’t write something to the final one, because it’s for person knowledge solely and will probably be crammed by Android through the first boot. However we have to write some information for the primary one. Let’s create a short lived mount listing underneath /mnt/p1 (like “partition 1”), mount it, and duplicate the required information from the Android constructed within the earlier part. It’s unusual, however we’re going to repeat information from one digital machine (WSL) to a different (VirtualBox). You may merely mount a wsl drive as a shared folder in VirtualBox. In the event you don’t see a WSL drive in your Home windows Explorer, you may map it as a community drive utilizing “wsl$Ubuntu” path

sudo mkdir /mnt/p1
sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/p1
sudo mkdir /mnt/p1/overlays
sudo cp gadget/arpi/rpi4/boot/* /mnt/p1
sudo cp kernel/arpi/arch/arm64/boot/Picture.gz /mnt/p1
sudo cp kernel/arpi/arch/arm64/boot/dts/broadcom/bcm2711-rpi-4-b.dtb /mnt/p1
sudo cp kernel/arpi/arch/arm/boot/dts/overlays/vc4-kms-v3d-pi4.dtbo /mnt/p1/overlays/
sudo cp out/goal/product/rpi4/ramdisk.img /mnt/p1
sudo umount /mnt/p1
sudo rm -rf /mnt/p1

In the event you’re trying on the official android-rpi challenge guide, there’s a totally different path for vc4-kms-v3d-pi4.dtbo file. That’s OK – they use a symbolic hyperlink we’re unable to make use of on this filesystem. 

Typically, you may see an error message when creating an “overlays” listing. It occurs now and again, as a result of “mount” returns to the console earlier than actually mounting the drive. In such a case, simply name “mkdir” once more. Pay attention to that, particularly if you happen to’re going to copy-paste your entire itemizing from above. 

Now, let’s copy the 2 remaining partitions. In the event you’re combating dd command (it could hold), you may attempt to copy huge *.img information from WSL to VirtualBox first.

cd <PATH_TO_YOUR_ANDROID_SOURCES_IN_WSL>/out/goal/product/rpi4/
sudo dd if=system.img of=/dev/sdb2 bs=1M standing=progress
sudo dd if=vendor.img of=/dev/sdb3 bs=1M standing=progress


You’re completed. You’ve downloaded, ready, constructed, and saved your individual Android Automotive OS. Now you may put the SD card into Raspberry, and join all cables (be sure you join the Raspberry energy cable on the finish). There isn’t any “energy” button, and it doesn’t matter which micro-HDMI or USB port of Raspberry you employ. It’s now time to get pleasure from your individual Android Automotive OS! 

If it doesn’t work

The world is just not good and typically one thing goes terribly improper. In the event you see the boot animation for a very long time, or in case your gadget crashes in a loop a couple of seconds after boot, you may attempt to debug it.

You want a USB-TTL bridge (like this one to attach the right pins from the Raspberry to the USB. You want to join pin 6 (floor) to the GND pin within the bridge, pin 8 (RXD) to the RXD pin of the bridge and pin 10 (TXD) to the TXD pin of the bridge. If you wish to energy the Raspberry by way of the bridge, it’s essential additionally join pin 2 to +5V pin of the bridge. It isn’t beneficial, due to the decrease voltage, so your system may be unstable. In the event you don’t have an influence adapter, you may merely join a USB cable between your laptop port and the USB C port of the Raspberry. Warning! You may’t join each a +5V connector right here and a USB C energy port of the Raspberry otherwise you’ll burn the Raspberry board. 

See the schema for the connection reference.

The picture relies on 20171226043249PINOUT-USBTTL-CP2102.pdf ( and File:RaspberryPi 4 Model B.svg – Wikimedia Commons

Relying in your bridge mannequin, you might want a further driver. I exploit this one:

Once you join the +5V pin or USB-C energy adapter (once more, by no means each on the identical time!), the Raspberry begins. Now you may open Putty and hook up with your Android. Choose Serial and kind COMX within the serial line definition. X is the variety of your COM port. You may examine it in your gadget supervisor – search for “USB to UART bridge (COM4)” or the like. The proper connection velocity is 115200.

Open the connection to entry the Android shell. By default, Android spawns all logs to the usual output, so you must see loads of them instantly. Anyway, it’s dual-side communication and you’ve got full terminal entry to your Android if it’s essential examine/modify any file or name any command. Simply strike enter to see the command immediate. You may even name ‘su’ to realize superuser entry in your Android operating on Raspberry. 

Connecting by way of adb 

If you wish to use Android Debug Bridge to connect with your gadget, utilizing a USB bridge is just not sufficient. When operating ‘adb gadgets’ in your laptop, the Android Automotive OS operating on Raspberry is just not acknowledged. You need to use a putty connection to activate a TCP debug bridge as an alternative. 

Be sure to’ve related Android and your laptop to the identical community. Open putty and hook up with the operating Android console. Log as root and allow ADB by way of TCP. Then examine your IP tackle. 

setprop service.adb.tcp.port 5555
cease adbd
begin adbd
ifconfig wlan0

Now, utilizing your Home windows command line, go to the Android SDK platform-tools listing and hook up with your gadget. As you may see, the IP tackle of mine Raspnberry is

cd %userprofilepercentAppDataLocalAndroidSdkplatform-tools
adb join

If you wish to use ADB in WSL, you may hyperlink the Home windows program in WSL utilizing the next command.

sudo ln -s /mnt/c/Customers/<your_username>/AppData/Native/Android/Sdk/platform-tools/adb.exe /usr/bin/adb

Now you can use ADB to make use of logcat with out putty or to put in purposes with out manually transferring APK information to the SD card. Enjoyable truth – if you happen to use a USB bridge and USB energy provide, you have got two bodily connections between your laptop and the Android-running one, nonetheless, you continue to want to make use of ADB over WiFi to make use of the debug bridge.


That’s all. Android Automotive OS 11 is operating. You may set up the apps you want, take them to your automotive, or do no matter you’d like with them.  Utilizing {hardware} as an alternative of an emulator permits you to manually handle partitions (e.g. for the OTA replace) and join exterior gadgets like an actual GPS receiver or accelerometer. The naked metallic {hardware} overperforms the emulator too. And most significantly – you may simply take it to your automotive, obtain energy from an in-car USB port, join it to an ODB-II port and run real-life checks with no laptop computer.